In this busy life, we are less focused on our diet. However, our body needs proper nutrition to work well. As we all know, our body is built up of 70% water and 30% of nutrients. But in our busy schedule, we are more likely to eat packed food which is very harmful to our body. Then many diseases like diabetes attack our body. We will further discuss diabetes, and its effects in this article.
❖ Diabetes - The Killer
Diabetes can be found in any age group, whether it is a child or an adult. It can be asymptomatic sometimes; this means you are a diabetic patient, but you don't even know about it. We can classify diabetes into two categories, i.e., type-1 diabetes and type-2 diabetes. It cannot be cured completely; that's why it is a very harmful disease. By staying fit and eating nutritious food is the only way by which you can keep diabetes away.
Some symptoms of diabetes are--
● Shortness of breath
● Excess hunger sometimes
● Needle and pins sensation in hands and joints
● Unusual urination
● Excess thirst
● Weight gain or immediate weight loss
➢ Type - 1 Diabetes
In diabetes type - 1, your pancreas stops making insulin or makes very little insulin; this results in the body not allowing blood sugar cells to enter and be used for energy. This condition is found in every age, from children to adults. Juvenile diabetes is known in young children.
If the person takes sugar in high amounts, they cannot respond to it due to damage to insulin cells. Symptoms included are-- mood changes, heavy breath, blurred vision, and the other symptoms are the same as discussed above.
➢ Type - 2 Diabetes
In type - 2 diabetes the body declines to behave with insulin results in lifelong disease. The cells are proving the insulin the person's body is not accepting. Therefore, It leads to excess storage of blood sugar in the body, which results in type - 2 diabetes or high blood sugar levels. Both adults and children can be affected by this. It is the most common diabetes in which many people can be pre-diabetic, and children can be due to childhood obesity. Type - 2 diabetes symptoms are very mild; they cannot be noticed easily. They include-- tiredness, excess weight gain, more often craving sweets, excess urination, and excess hunger.
❖ Effect of diabetes
Diabetes can affect any part of the body, whether it is the kidney, heart, eyes, etc. Some of the parts are more effective as compared to other parts.
1. On the heart
Coronary heart disease and diabetes are closely related. Diabetes causes high cholesterol and leads to high blood pressure, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease and heart attacks.
As diabetes causes heart disease, increases cholesterol and blood pressure similarly leads to the risk of strokes.
3. Damages Kidney
Diabetes can also cause kidney damage and affect the kidney to filter out the waste from your blood. If the doctor in your body detects microalbuminuria, this means your kidney isn't working properly. Diabetic nephropathy is the name of kidney disease which is related to diabetes. There are no symptoms in this condition till the last stage.
4. Circulatory system
In a blood vessel, wall formation of fatty deposit occurs when there is a high blood glucose level. As time passes, it blocks the blood flow, and the risk of atherosclerosis increases or blood vessels harden down. If you are a diabetic patient, you should avoid smoking because smoking and diabetes are very bad mixes that cause cardiovascular problems.
5. Integumentary system
Due to high blood sugar levels, your skin lacks moisture, and your skin starts feeling dry and crack and causes dehydration in the body. Avoid your feet from becoming too moist; keep them dry, and apply some cream or petroleum jelly to it. Moist feet can lead to yeast, bacterial and fungal infections that develop on toes, fingers, armpits, groins, or the mouth corner. Some symptoms are itchiness, blistering, and redness.
6. Central nervous system
Diabetes can damage the nerves also. This affects pain, cold, and heat. If you don't notice these injuries, this can affect a serious problem or infection in the future. Diabetic retinopathy means a condition in which diabetes leads to eyes swelling or even leaky blood vessels. It can cause damage to your vision or permanent vision loss.
7. Reproductive system
At the time of pregnancy, due to hormonal changes, gestational diabetes is caused when sometimes your blood pressure increases. Gestational diabetes is controlled in many cases after the birth of the baby. Symptoms including the infection in the bladder and vagina rest symptoms are the same.
❖ Tests for diabetes type - 1 and type - 2
➢ Glycated Hemoglobin or A1C Test
These tests indicate the average blood sugar level (BSL) of the last 2-3 months. If your blood sugar level is higher, then an increased amount of hemoglobin is attached to the sugar. Two separate tests indicate diabetes on 6.5% or higher A1C level.
➢ Random Blood Sugar Test
This test is done according to your meal timing. This is a random test to find out the Blood sugar level, i.e., when BSL is 200 mg/dL or above, it indicates diabetes.
➢ Fasting Blood Sugar Test
A whole night fast is needed. Fasting blood sugar level of 100-125 mg/dL is prediabetes. Two separate tests indicate diabetes on 126 mg/dL or more.
➢ Oral Glucose Tolerance Test
A whole night fast is needed. A glucose drink is offered to you before 2 hours of blood sugar level test. The blood sugar level of 140 and 199 mg/dL indicates prediabetes, and a blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL or more after 2 hours indicates diabetes.
Healthy diets and exercises
Other than treatments, you can follow some healthy tips to control your diabetes.
● In a healthy diet for diabetic patients, low glycemic index food should be included.
● Control over the intake of carbohydrates.
● Along with the medicines, plan your meal.
● Sweetened beverages should be avoided.
● Take whole grains, fruits, high fiber content, vegetables, etc., in your meal.
Exercises to do regularly
● Brisk walking